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Related post: hepatic injury by chloroform, phosphorus, etc. Even if the ammonium were not destroyed, the excretory mechanism of the kidneys could be expected to remove the excess. In fact, the ammonium content of the blood has not been found increased in uremia or in acute yellow atrophy of the liver. An increase of 50 per cent, above the normal has been reported after complete excision of the thyroids and parathyroids (MacCallum and Voegtlin, 1909; Berkeley and Beebe, 1909); and the ammonium production is increased (Underhill and Saiki, 1908), or its destruction diminished (Carlson and Jacob- son, 1910). A similar increase Buy Cheap Amantadine was reported in clinical tetany (Musser and Goodman, 1909). There is also a Purchase Amantadine close resemblance between the symptoms of tetany; those of animals with Eck's fistula on a meat diet (Pawlow, 1892); and ammonium poisoning. Even the concentration of NH4 in the blood required Amantadine Online to produce true ammonium tetany (0.008 per cent., Magnus, et al, 1914) seemed very similar (Jacobson, 1910). However, the later work of Carlson and Jacobson, 1911, with improved methods, showed that the increase of ammonium is not constant and falls within the variations of normal animals, so that even these conditions can not yet be classed as ammonium intoxications. Intravenous Injection of Ammonium Chlorid. The effects vary with the dose and the rate of injection. Marfori, 1893, described immediate tremors and twitchings, advancing to tetany, violent convulsions and opisthotonus; irregular respiration; salivation and emesis; somnolence and Generic Amantadine lassitude. The respiration shows momentary convulsive inspiratory standstill, followed by increased rate. This stimulation occurs even with small doses. Blood- pressure tracings (Fig. 28) show a temporary fall; then a slow but more lasting rise; with slowed rate and "vagus pulse." The Buy Amantadine rate may be Purchase Amantadine Online quickened during the convulsions. Amantadine 100 Mg These effects indicate stimulation of the respira- tory, vasomotor, and vagus centers. If the injection is not promptly fatal the functions recover rapidly (Meneguzzi, 1912). FH;. 28. Ammonium chlorid, intravenous. Carotid pressure tracing, dog. Curare Action. -This is much weaker than with the organic ammonium bases (see Muscarin). Reflexes from the Inhalation of Ammonia Vapors. Through irritation of the sensory trigeminal endings, these produce momentary standstill, then increase of respiration; stimulation of the vasomotor center (rise of blood pressure); and vagus slowing of the pulse (in rabbits, vagus standstill). CLASSIFICATION OF EXPECTORANTS 68 1 Use for Medullary Stimulation. Ammonia is one of the most effect- ive means for stimulating the medulla reflexly. It may be used as the aromatic spirit of ammonia 1$ to 30 drops in a tumbler of water; or as ammonium carbonate smelling salts; in headache, fainting, collapse, excessive anesthesia, etc. Care must be used so that the unconscious patient is not made to inhale too concentrated a vapor. Toxicology. The neutral ammonium salts may produce gastritis. This would be treated by dilution and evacuation. Ammonia and the carbonate produce more violent irritation, and also inflammation of the respiratory passages. The mortality of ammonia poisoning is therefore high. If the patient recovers from the acute effects, pneumonia may set in; or the hoarseness Amantadine Hydrochloride or aphonia may last for months. The treatment consists in artificial respiration, weak acids and oils. PREPARATIONS AMMONIUM *Liq. Amman. Acet., U.S. P., B.P. (Spirit of Mindererus). 7 per cent, of NH^HsOj, with small amounts of acetic and carbonic acids. Should be slightly acid. Must be recently prepared. Dose, 15 c.c., 4 drams, U.S. P.; 8 to 24 c.c., 2 to 6 drams, B.P. *Ammonii Carbonas (Ammon. Carb.), U.S.P., B.P. (Sal Volatile, Hartshorn, Baker's Ammonia). Consists of varying proportions of a mixture of acid ammonium car- bonate (NH^HCOs) and ammonium carbamate (NH^NH^COo). For medicinal pur- poses, only the translucent portions are used. On exposure to air, it becomes a powder, losing NH 3 and CQ%; and changing to ammonium bicarbonate, NH^HCOs. White, hard, translucent, striated masses; strong odor of ammonia, without empyreuma; sharp, saline taste. It is slowly but freely sol. in water (i : 4), the carbamate changing to normal ammonium carbonate. It is decomposed by hot water. Alcohol dissolves the carbamate and leaves the carbonates. Incompatible with acids and the salts of most metals and alkaloids. Dose, 0.3 Gm., 5 gr., U.SP.; 0.2 to 0.6 Gm., 3 to 10 gr., B.P.; diluted. * Spirit us Ammonia; Aromaticus (Sp. Ammon. Arom.), U.S. P., B.P. (Aromatic Am- monia). A solution of ammonium carbonate (3.4 per cent.), anmonia water (9 per cent.), and aromatic oils (lemon, lavender Order Amantadine and nutmeg) in alcohol of about 60 per cent. (U.S.P.). The composition of the B.P. is similar. A nearly colorless liquid when freshly prepared, but gradually acquiring a yellowish color. Dose, 2 c.c., 30 minims, U.S. P.; 1.2 to 2.5 c.c., 20 to 40 minims, repeated; single, 4 to 6 c.c., 60 to 90 minims, B.P.; largely diluted. * Ammon. Chlor., U.S.P., B.P. (Sal Ammoniac; Salmiac), NH 4 C1. White crystalline powder, without odor, of cooling saline taste. Freely sol. Amantadine 100mg in water ( i : 2.6) ; sol. in ale. (i : 100); freely sol. in glyc. (i : 8). Neutral or slightly acid to litmus. Incompatible with alkaline hydroxids or carbonates (liberation of ammonia); precipitates with Ag and Pb salts. Dose, 0.3 Gm., 5 gr., U.S. P. (0.3 to 1.2 Gm., 5 to 20 gr., B.P. Troch. Ammon. Chlor., U.S.P. o.i Gm., flavored with Licorice and Tolu. *Aqua Ammonia (Aq. Ammon.), U.S.P. ; Liq. Amman., B.P.; Ammonia Water. Contains about 10 per cent, (by weight) of ammonia (NH 3 ). It loses strength on stand- ing. Colorless liquid of pungent ammonia odor and caustic soapy taste. Freely mis- cible with water and alcohol. Incompatible with most metals and alkaloids. Dose, i c.c., 1 6 minims, U.S.P.; largely diluted. Aq. Ammon. Fortior, U.S.P.; contains about 28 per cent, of ammonia; Liq. Ammon. Fortis, B.P., about 32.5 per cent. *Linimentum Ammonia (Lin. Ammon.), U.S.P., B.P. A mixture of i part am- monia water and 3 parts of fatty oil (sesame, U.S.P.; almond i, olive 2, B.P.). Lin. Camph. Ammon., B.P. (Compound Liniment of Camphor). 12.5 per cent, of Camphor; 25 per cent, of Stronger Ammonia in alcoholic solution of Lavender. CLASSIFICATION OF EXPECTORANTS These are remedies that modify Buy Amantadine Online expectoration and are therefore em- ployed in the treatment of coughs. Order Amantadine Online The successive stages of bronchitis present different indications, which are met by the various classes of expectorants. 682 MANUAL OF PHARMACOLOGY The act of coughing is a coordinated reflex involving the respiratory center, and
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